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Fish species

 

ARAPAIMA

        The Arapaima, Pirarucu, or Paiche (genus Arapaima) is a genus of bonytongues native to the Amazon and Essequibo basins of South America. They are among the largest freshwater fish in the world, reaching lengths of as much as 4.5 m (15 ft). They are important food fish and have declined in the native range due to overfishing and habitat loss. In contrast, arapaima have been introduced to several tropical regions outside the native range (within South America and elsewhere) where they are sometimes considered invasive species. The arapaima is torpedo-shaped with large blackish-green scales and red markings. It is streamlined and sleek, with its dorsal and anal fin set back near its tail. Its local name, paiche, derives from the indigenous words for "red" and "fish".

         Arapaima scales have a highly mineralised, very hard outer layer with a corrugated surface under which lie several layers of collagen fibres. In a structure similar to plywood, the fibres in each successive layer are oriented at right angles to those in the previous layer for maximum toughness. The hard corrugated surface of the outer layer, the soft but tough internal orthogonal collagen layers, and the hydration of the scales all contribute to their ability to flex and deform while remaining strong a solution that allows the fish to remain mobile while heavily armored.

         The arapaima has a fundamental dependence on surface air to breathe. In addition to gills, it has a modified and enlarged swim bladder, composed of lung-like tissue, which enables it to extract oxygen from the air. This is an adaptation to the often hypoxic conditions of the Amazon floodplains, but requires the arapaima to surface for air every 5 to 15 minutes.

 

Fish population in our lake: from 20kg up to 120kg

Diet: Fish, frogs, birds, squid, shrimp.

 

ALLIGATOR GAR

         The Alligator Gar, Atractosteus spatula, are ray-finned euryhaline fishes related to bowfin in the infraclass Holostei (ho'-las-te-i). The fossil record traces the existence of alligator gars back to the Early Cretaceous over a hundred million years ago. They are the largest in the gar family, and among the largest freshwater fishes in North America. Gars are often referred to as "primitive fishes", or "living fossils" because they have retained some morphological characters of their earliest ancestors, such as a spiral valve intestine which is also common to the digestive system of sharks, and they can breathe both air and water. Their common name was derived from their resemblance to American alligators, particularly their broad snout and long sharp teeth. Anecdotal scientific reports suggest that alligator gars can grow up to 10 ft (3.0 m) in length and weigh as much as 300 lb (140 kg); however in 2011 the largest alligator gar ever caught and officially recorded was 8 ft 5 14 in (2.572 m) long, weighed 327 lb (148 kg), and was 47 in (120 cm) around the girth. Their bodies are torpedo shaped, usually brown or olive fading to a lighter gray or yellow ventral surface. They do not have scales like other fishes, rather they are armored for protection against predation with hard, enamel-like, jagged diamond-shaped ganoid scales that are nearly impenetrable. Unlike other gar species, mature alligator gars have a dual row of large sharp teeth in the upper jaw which they use for impaling and holding prey. They are stalking, ambush predators that are primarily piscivores, but will also ambush and eat water fowl and small mammals that may be floating on the surface.

 

Fish population in our lake: from 8kg up to 20kg

Diet: Fish, frogs, squid, shrimp, waterfowl.

 

AMAZON REDTAIL CATFISH

          The Redtail Catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, is a pimelodid (long-whiskered) catfish named for its orange-red caudal fin. In Venezuela it is known as cajaro and in Brazil it is known as pirarara. It is the only extant species of the genus Phractocephalus. This fish originates from South America in the Amazon, Orinoco, and Essequibo river basins. Despite reaching 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) in length and 80 kg (180 lb) in weight, this fish is a common aquarium fish.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 25kg

Diet: Fish, frogs, squid, shrimp,crabs, scavenger,of almost any food eat them.

 

ASIAN REDTAIL CATFISH

 

         The Asian Redtail Catfish, (Hemibagrus wyckioides ) is a species of catfish (order Siluriformes) of the family Bagridae.The Asian Red Tail Catfish reaches a length of 130 cm (50 in). This species is the largest Bagrid catfish in Asia and may reach 80 kilograms. The caudal fin is white when the fish is small, but it becomes bright red when it reaches about 15 cm (6 in). H. wyckioides occurs in large upland rivers and is common in areas with rocky bottoms and irregular depths. These fish do not migrate, but they reproduce locally and enter the flooded forest during high water in July–October. H. wyckioides feed on insects, prawns, fish and crabs.

 

Fish population in our lake:  up to 15kg

Diet: Fish, frogs, squid, shrimp, crabs, scavenger, almost any food eat them.

 

 

MEKONG GIANT CATFISH

         The Mekong Giant Catfish, Pangasianodon gigas (Thai: pla buek,) is a very large, critically endangered species of catfish (order Siluriformes) in the shark catfish family (Pangasiidae), native to the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and adjacent China. In Thai folklore, this fish is regarded with reverence, and special rituals are followed and offerings are made before fishing it.

         The Mekong giant catfish is a threatened species in the Mekong, and conservationists have focused on it as a flagship species to promote conservation on the river. Although research projects are currently ongoing, relatively little is known about this species. Historically, the fish's natural range reached from the lower Mekong in Vietnam (above the tidally influenced brackish water of the river's delta) all the way to the northern reaches of the river in the Yunnan province of China, spanning almost the entire 4,800 km (3,000 mi) length of the river. Due to threats, this species no longer inhabits the majority of its original habitat, it is now believed to only exist in small, isolated populations in the middle Mekong region. Fish congregate during the beginning of the rainy season and migrate upstream to spawn. They live primarily in the main channel of the river, where the water depth is over 10 m (33 Ft), while researchers, fishermen and officials have found this species in the Tonle Sap River and Lake in Cambodia, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. In the past, fishermen have reported the fish in a number of the Mekong's tributaries today. However, essentially no sightings are reported outside of the main Mekong river channel and the Tonle Sap region.

         In its territory, this species feeds on zooplankton in the river and is known to be cannibalistic. After approximately one year, the fish becomes herbivorous, feeding on filamentous algae, probably ingesting larvae and periphyton accidentally. The fish likely obtains its food from algae growing on submerged rocky surfaces, as it does not have any sort of dentition.

Grey to white in colour and lacking stripes, the Mekong giant catfish is distinguished from other large catfish species in this river by the near-total lack of barbels and the absence of teeth. The Mekong giant catfish currently holds the Guinness Book of World Records, position for the world's largest freshwater fish. Attaining an unconfirmed length of 3 m (9.8 ft), the Mekong giant catfish grows extremely quickly, reaching a mass of 150 to 200 kg (330 to 440 lb) in six years. It can reportedly weigh up to 350 kg (770 Lb). The largest catch recorded in Thailand since record-keeping began in 1981 was a female measuring 2.7 m (8 Ft 10 in) in length and weighing 293 kg (646 lb). This specimen, caught in 2005, is widely recognized as the largest freshwater fish ever caught (although the largest sturgeon species can far exceed this size, they are anadromous). Thai Fisheries officials stripped the fish of its eggs as part of a breeding programme, intending then to release it, but the fish died in captivity and was sold as food to local villagers.

         Endemic to the lower half of the Mekong River, this catfish is in danger of extinction due to overfishing, as well as the decrease in water quality due to development and upstream damming. The current IUCN Red List for fishes classes the species as Critically Endangered, the number living in the wild is unknown, but catch data indicate the population has fallen by 80% in the last 14 years. It is also listed in Appendix I of CITES, banning international trade involving wild-caught specimens.

         Fishing for the Mekong giant catfish is illegal in the wild in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, but the bans appear to be ineffective and the fish continue to be caught in all three countries. However, in recognition of the threat to the species, nearly 60 Thai fishermen agreed to stop catching the endangered catfish in June 2006, to mark the 60th anniversary of Bhumibol Adulyadej's ascension to the throne of Thailand. Thailand is the only country to allow fishing for private stocks of Mekong giant catfish. This helps save the species, as lakes purchase the small fry from the government breeding programme, generating extra income that allows the breeding program to function.

 

Fish population in our lake:  up to 130kg

Diet: Plankton, maize, bread.

 

 

GIANT PANGASIUS

         The Giant Pangasius, Paroon Shark or Chao Phraya Giant Catfish (Pangasius sanitwongsei) is a species of freshwater fish in the shark catfish family (Pangasiidae) of order Siluriformes, found in the Chao Phraya and Mekong basins in Indochina. Its populations have declined drastically, mainly due to overfishing, and it is now considered Critically Endangered.

         The giant pangasius is pigmented with dusky melanophores. It has a wide, flat, whiskerless head. It has a silver, curved underside and a dark brown back. It´s dorsal, pectoral and pelvic fins are dark gray and the first soft ray is extended into a filament. Full-grown adults can reach 300 centimetres (9.8 Ft) in length and weigh up to 300 kg (660 Lb). The giant pangasius is a benthopelagic and migratory species. Juvenile and adults feed on crustaceans and fishes. These fish typically spawn just prior to the monsoon season. Fishing of this species used to be accompanied by religious ceremonies and rites. It is often mentioned in textbooks, news media, and popular press. This fish is a popular food fish.                                                                                                                                

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 30kg

Diet: Fish, crustaceans, squid, shrimp.

 

 

IRIDESENT SHARK

         The Iridescent shark (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is a species of shark catfish (family Pangasiidae) native to the rivers of Southeast Asia. It is found in the Mekong basin as well as the Chao Phraya River, and is heavily cultivated for food there. The meat is often marketed under the common name swai, and in Europe as pangasius. It has also been introduced into other river basins as a food source, and its striking appearance and iridescence have made it popular with fishkeeping hobbyists. The swai's omnivorous diet consists of crustaceans, other fish, and plant matter.

The fish is named for the glow or iridescence exhibited in juveniles, as well as the shark-like appearance of this and other shark catfish. It is also known as Siamese shark or Sutchi catfish in the aquarium hobby.

         The fins are dark grey or black. Juveniles have a black stripe along the lateral line and a second black stripe below the lateral line; they have a shiny, iridescent color that gives these fish their name. Large adults are uniformly grey and lack the striping. Adults reach up to 130 cm (4 Ft) in length and can weigh up to a maximum of 44kg.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 20kg

Diet: Fish, crustaceans, plant, bread, maize.

 

RIPSAW CATFISH

         The Ripsaw Catfish (Oxydoras niger) or cuiu cuiu is a species of thorny catfish native to the Amazon, Essequibo and São Francisco basins in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. This species grows to a length of 1m (39 in) and weights up to 13 kilograms (29 Lb). This species is a minor component of local commercial fisheries. The fish has lateral thorns that can damage a potential predator or handler. It feeds by shifting through sand and detecting eatable parts with the taste receptors in the roof and floor of his mouth. This species feeds on detritus, chironomid and ephemeropteran larvae, and crustaceans.

 

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Fish population in our lake: up to 6kg

Diet: Bread, maize, worm, moluscs

 

TIGER CATFISH

         The Tiger Catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) or barred sorubim is a species of long-whiskered catfish native to the Corantijn, Essequibo, Orinoco, Paraná and Amazon Basins. The nocturnal predator feeds mainly on other fish and crabs. Females reach a more notable size. They become sexually mature at 56 cm (22 in), males at 45 cm (18 in) and this species reaches a maximum length of 104 cm (41 in). Fecundity seems to be estimated at 8 million eggs per kg but was recently measured in aquaculture at a lower, and more likely) level of 150 000 eggs laid per kg.The fish is a genus of several South American catfish species of family Pimelodidae. The species are known by a number of different common names. They typically inhabit major rivers where they prefer the main channels and tend to stay at maximum depth, but some species can also be seen in lakes, flooded forests, and other freshwater habitats. The species are all large, boldly striped or spotted catfishes. They are familiar due to their distinctively marked color patterns. They are also recognized due to a depressed head, an occipital process extending backward to contact the pre dorsal plate, and a very long fontanel. After gonadal maturation, females tend to grow faster than males. They have a large, depressed head with an expandable mouth. The eyes and teeth are small. They have dorsal and pectoral fin spines. Tiger catfish also has an additional, smaller, dorsal spinelet preceding the dorsal spine. They exhibit typical barbels of catfish, the maxillary barbels sometimes being quite long, especially in juveniles.These fish are nocturnal hunters, primarily piscivorous, feeding on fish such as electric knife fishes.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 6kg

Diet: Fish, squid, frogs,shrimp, worm, crustaceans.

 

 

GOONCH CATFISH

         The Goonch Catfish (Bagarius yarelli)(Thai: ปลาแค้) is an Asian genus of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Sisoridae. It includes four extant species, and one extinct species. Bagarius species have a broad head that is moderately or strongly depressed. The mouth is broad and terminal or slightly inferior. The gill openings are wide. The dorsal fin and pectoral fins have strong spines. The dorsal fin spine is smooth, and the pectoral fin spine is smooth anteriorly and finely serrate posteriorly. The dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fin lobes sometimes with filamentous extensions. The head and body is entirely or almost entirely covered by heavily keratinized skin superficially differentiated into unculiferous plaques or tubercles. Bagarius species lack a thoracic adhesive apparatus and paired fins are unplaited. Bagarius species have the same general colour pattern consisting of three darkly pigmented bands or blotches on the body. Irregularly placed spots may also be present on the body. The fin pigmentation varies from species to species. The Goonch catfish grows very large, reaching about 200 cm (78.7 in). The fish migrates in schools. It is reported to migrate to follow its prey. It is also reported that it follows Siamese Carps during its upstream migration. Apparently the main upstream migration begins close to the peak of flood, when the current is very strong and the water is turbid.

          Goonch catfish are marketed fresh, and are important as a food fish, but the meat spoils rapidly and can cause illness. The Goonch catfish Bagarius yarelli has become an object of media attention as reports have surfaced of some of these fish feeding on funeral pyres in the Kali River. There is speculation that some drownings have also been caused by large specimens that have "developed a taste" for human flesh from the corpses and subsequently have attacked bathers in the river. This is the subject of a TV documentary aired on 22 October 2008, as well as an episode about the Kali River Goonch attacks on the Animal Planet series River Monsters.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 10kg

Diet: Fish, squid, frogs, shrimp, worm, crustaceans, scavenger, almost any food eat them.

 

 

WALLAGO LEERI

         Wallago is a genus of catfishes order Siluriformes of the family Siluridae, or sheatfish. They are found in rivers throughout southern Asia. Though the genus contains more than one species, the name "wallago" is also used specifically as a common name for Wallago attu.

         The Wallago Leeri is a species of the catfish family siluridae. The body is very similar to the European Wels Catfish. The colour of this fish varies from black to brown, the fins are the same colour as there body. Their mouth is very big and equipped with a double row of sharp teeth.

         In July, adults migrate from Cambodia and Laos downstream to Thailand to flooded grasslands to spawn in the cover of night. The eggs are spawned near the surface.

         The Wallago leeri are highly predatory, pure carnivores and considered dangerous by the local fisherman with their large mouth and jaws and a double bands of conical teeth, they are also known as human eating fish, as in India where the locals lay their dead to rest in the rivers, they are rumor to have become conditioned to feeding on human corpses! Over the centuries this has created a fish that has taste for humans! The fish´s habits are well documented, and traces of human corpses have been recovered from the fish´s stomach according to well known fishery experts. The fish is very rarely eaten, as they are said to carry the souls of the dead taste of human flesh. By killing them local superstition claims it release the spirits of the dead. Nearly all this is myth and legend, but it does make the wallago leeri  a special case in the fish world. For our fishing guest peace of mind, our wallago were bred and grow on in fish farms for their valuable use as cleaners of the dead and rotting fish, keeping lakes like ours in pristine condition.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 45kg

Diet: scavenger, fish, squid, frogs, shrimp, birds, crustaceans, (and humans).

 

WALLAGO ATTU

         Wallago attu (Thai: ปลาเค้าขาว) is a species of catfish in the family Siluridae, or "sheatfishes". The fish is commonly known by its genus name, wallago or 'lanchi'. It is found in large rivers and lakes in much of the Indian Subcontinent and in parts of Southeast Asia. The species can reach 2.4 m (8 feet) total length. It ranges mainly across India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, but is also found in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaysia, and is also reported from Afghanistan.

         It is common to find huge frogs and fishes inside its stomach, when cut open for cooking. It has been claimed that in some areas of Thailand the natives fear the species because of its believed habit of eating small chickens and ducks, dogs, and small children. It is thought the Wallago attu became this aggressive due to natives laying to rest their dead in the water. The catfish would then see this as a ready supply of food.

         Following to some folklore in Malaysia, the descendant of a person called Tok Kaduk cannot eat and touch the fish because the legend says that a long time ago Tok Kaduk caught this Wallago atu and when he cut open its stomach, there was gold inside the fish so Tok Kaduk took the gold and stitched back the fish and released it back in to the river. From that time, if the descendant came in touch with the fish their skin would become red and itching until they go to Lambo near Bota in middle District of Perak, Malaysia to find the medicine. The medicine is remaining gold from the fish that has been kept to make the medicine for this disease. Some say that the gold needs to be soaked inside water and needs to be consumed by the patient and wash the areas that itch. Other stories have told that the Wallago attu will devour the carcass of humans that have been buried in the water, and it will take the human's soul to the gods

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 10kg

Diet: Fish, squid, frogs, birds, shrimp, moluscs , and crustaceans.

 

 

SIAMESE GIANT CARP

          The Siamese Giant Carp or Giant Barb, Catlocarpio siamensis (Thai: กระโห้, pla kraho) is the largest species of cyprinid in the world. These migratory fish are found only in the Mae Klong, Mekong and Chao Phraya river basins in Indochina. It has declined drastically due to habitat loss and overfishing, and it is now considered Critically Endangered

          They are usually seen in the big pools along the edges of large rivers, but will seasonally enter smaller canals, floodplains and flooded forests. Young carps are usually found in smaller tributaries and swamps, but can acclimatize to living in ponds, canals and swamps. The fish generally live in pairs. These are migratory fish, swimming to favorable areas for feeding and breeding in different parts of the year. These slow-moving fish subsist on algae, phytoplankton and fruits of inundated terrestrial plants, rarely (if ever) feeding on active animals. In the lower Mekong basin, young giant carps have been reported as occurring primarily in October.

          The head is rather large for the body. There are no barbels. The giant carp ranks among the largest freshwater fish in the world, and is probably the largest fish in the family Cyprinidae. It may reach 3 m (9.8 Ft) (although this claimed maximum length needs confirmation) and weigh up to 300 kg (660 Lb). Among the cyprinids, only the golden mahseer can reach a comparable length, but it is a relatively slender fish that weighs far less. Few large giant carps are caught today. For example, no individual weighing more than 150 kg (330 Lb) has been caught in Cambodia since 1994. Today the maximum length is about 1.8 m (6 Ft). This fish is actually tetraploid, meaning it has four of each chromosome (as opposed to diploid, the normal number in animals).

          Today, few giant carps live to maturity. The main threats are from habitat loss (e.g., pollution and dams) and overfishing. The sharp population decline is well illustrated by catch data from Cambodia, where 200 tonnes of giant carps were caught in 1964. By 1980, only about 50 fish were caught and by 2000, only 10. It was formerly an important fish in local catches below the Mekong Falls, but surveys between 1993 and 1999 only located a single small individual. Consequently, the giant carp is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. It has been entirely extirpated from the Chao Phraya River. In a 2005 royal decree, the Kingdom of Cambodia designated this fauna as the national fish to bring conservation awareness to this species.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 35kg

Diet: Plankton, srimp, maize, fruit.

 

 

JULLIEN´S GOLDEN CARP

         The Jullien's Golden Carp (Probarbus jullieni) is a species of endangered freshwater ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family found in Southeast Asian river basins. Its existence is being threatened by various economic activities, such as large-scale agriculture and the building of dams for hydropower.

         The Jullien’s golden carp was named by French paleontologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist Henri Émile Sauvage. This fish has many identifying characteristics. Most noticeable are its five longitudinal stripes above its lateral line. For its teeth, it has large pharyngeal teeth in a single row. Pharyngeal teeth are located in the throat of some species of fish, specifically the pharyngeal arch of these fishes’ throats. In order to feel, it has maxillary barbels. These are whisker like appendages that serve as tactile organs near its mouth. Thus, these whiskers allow it to better feel its surroundings. For movement, it has a dorsal fin with one spine and nine branched rays and five branched anal rays. Its maximum total length is approximately 165 cm and its maximum weight is approximately 70 kg. It can live up to 50 years and gradually grows in size over time. This is responsible for its large size.

         This fish eats freshwater shellfish, prawns, and aquatic plants. They tend to eat more during the wet season, when food is abundant, and less during the dry season, when food is scarce. Like many other river fish, its lifecycle is dependent on monsoon rains, which means that the Jullien’s golden carp occupies different regions throughout the year depending on the season.

         This fish is migratory, and its migratory pattern centers around its mating season. Adults migrate upstream during the dry season to form spawning communities in deep pools of low water. Once the spawning is over, the recently hatched fish enter floodplains during the rainy season. This means that its migratory pattern centers around the shift from dry to rainy season. This migratory pattern is vital for the survival of this endangered species, but various threats to its habitat, such as aquaculture and hydropower development threaten this pattern, and thus their existence.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 8kg

Diet: Aquatic plants, insects, prawns, maize, bread.

 

 

COMMON CARP

          The Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia. The wild populations are considered vulnerable to extinction, but the species has also been domesticated and introduced into environments worldwide, and is often considered a very destructive invasive species, being included in the List of the world's 100 worst invasive species. It gives its name to the carp family: Cyprinidae.

          The common carp is native to Asia, and has been introduced to every part of the world with the exception of the Middle East and the poles. They are the third most frequently introduced species worldwide, and their history as a farmed fish dates back to Roman times. Carp are used as food in many areas, but are now also regarded as a pest in some regions due to their ability to out-compete native fish stocks. The original common carp was found in the inland delta of the Danube River about 2000 years ago, and was torpedo-shaped and golden-yellow in colour. It had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Although this fish was initially kept as an exploited captive, it was later maintained in large, specially built ponds by the Romans in south-central Europe (verified by the discovery of common carp remains in excavated settlements in the Danube delta area). As aquaculture became a profitable branch of agriculture, efforts were made to farm the animals, and the culture systems soon included spawning and growing ponds. The common carp's native range also extends to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea.

          Both European and Asian subspecies have been domesticated. In Europe, domestication of carp as food fish was spread by monks between the 13th and 16th centuries. The wild forms of carp had reached the delta of the Rhine in the 12th century already, probably also with some human help. Variants that have arisen with domestication include the mirror carp, with large, mirror-like scales (linear mirror – scaleless except for a row of large scales that run along the lateral line; originating in Germany), the leather carp (virtually unscaled except near dorsal fin), and the fully scaled carp.

          Wild common carp are typically slimmer than domesticated forms, with body length about four times body height, red flesh, and a forward-protruding mouth. Their average growth rate by weight is about half the growth rate of domesticated carp. They do not reach the lengths and weights of domesticated carp, which (range, 3.2–4.8 times) can grow to a maximum length of 120 centimetres (47 in), a maximum weight of over 40 kilograms (88 lb), and an oldest recorded age of 65 years, but reliable information seems to exist about of over 100 years. The largest recorded carp, caught by British angler, Colin Smith, in 2013 at Etang La Saussaie Fishery, France, weighed 45.59 kilograms (100.5 lb). The average size of the common carp is around 40–80 cm (15.75-31.5 inches) and 2–14 kg (4.5-31 lb).Like other Cyprinids, common carp have been observed to be exceptional at leaping out of the water when threatened by predators, or frightened by passing watercraft. Common carp are omnivorous. They can eat a herbivorous diet of water plants, but prefer to scavenge the bottom for insects, crustaceans (including zooplankton), crawfish, and benthic worms

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 8kg

Diet: Maize, bread, worms, shrimp.

 

 

BLAK SHARK CARP

         The Black Shark or Black Sharkminnow (Labeo Chrysophekadion) is a member of the cyprinidae family of fishes (carp family) which is a native freshwater species found in the Mekong and Chao phraya basins in Thailand.
The Black Shark is also found in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
The Black Shark favours canals, rivers, streams and inundated flood plains and feeds on a varied diet of algae, periphyton, phytoplankton and detritus.

         The Black Shark or Black Sharkminnow is an easily distinguishable Asian carp species which displays a grey to blue colouration throughout its heavily scaled flanks which are topped by one iridescent spot on each scale.
Two small pairs of sensory barbels are located on the upper lip of the carp as is common with many other carp species.
         Black Shark Carp are equipped with large dorsal and pelvic fins which coupled with a large tail allow the Black Shark to navigate the wild waters that it inhabits.
Black Shark migrate upstream in the onset of the wet season where they spawn upstream of shallow sand bars. On hatching the fry move into bankside grasses in inundated floodplains moving further inland as the flood waters move inland.
Black Shark are present in various reservoirs throughout Thailand such as Khao Laem Dam and Srinakarin Dam.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 3kg

Diet: Water plants, maize, fruits, vegetables, insects, shrimp.

 

 

GRASS CARP

         The Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. It is a large cyprind native to eastern Asia, with a native range from northern Vietnam to the Amur River on the Siberia-China border. It is cultivated in China for food, but was introduced in Europe and the United States for aquatic weed control. It is a fish of large, turbid rivers and associated floodplain lakes, with a wide degree of temperature tolerance. Grass carp will enter reproductive condition and spawn at temperatures of 20 to 30°C. This species occurs in lakes, ponds, pools, and backwaters of large rivers, preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. In the wild, grass carp spawn in fast-moving rivers, and their eggs, which are slightly heavier than water, develop while drifting downstream, kept in suspension by turbulence. The eggs are thought to die if they sink to the bottom. Adults of the species feed primarily on aquatic plants. They feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged terrestrial vegetation, but may also take detritus, insects, and other invertebrates.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 4kg

Diet: Water plants, maize, vegetables, insects, shrimp.

 

 

GIANT FEATHERBACK

          The family Notopteridae contains ten species of osteoglossiform (bony-tongued) fishes, commonly known as featherbacks and knifefishes. They are small fishes living in freshwater or brackish environments in Africa, and South and Southeast Asia .With the denotation of "knifefish", the Notopterids should not be confused with Gymnotiforms, the electric knifefishes from South and Central America. Although their manner of swimming is similar and they are superficially similar in appearance, the two groups are not closely related.A few of the larger species, especially Chitala lopis, are food fish. The name is from Greek noton meaning "back" and pteron meaning "fin".

          The Giant Featherback (Chitala lopis) is a freshwater fish found in Southeast Asia, including Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra and Java. It inhabits lowland river mainstreams and tributaries with rocky and sunken wood bottoms, as well as forest-covered streams. It feeds on smaller fishes, insects and vertebrates, mostly at night. . Its maximum total length is approximately 150 cm and its maximum weight is approximately 25 kg.

Featherbacks have slender, elongated, bodies, giving them a knife-like appearance. The caudal fin is small and fused with the anal fin, which runs most of the length of the body. Where present, the dorsal fin is small and narrow, giving rise to the common name of "featherback". The fish swims by holding its body rigid and rippling the anal fin to propel itself forward or backwards. . Notopterids have specialized swim bladders. The organ extends throughout the body and even into the fins in some cases. Although the swim bladder is not highly vascularised, it can absorb oxygen from air and also functions to produce sound by squeezing air through a narrow passage into the pharynx. At least some species prepare nests and guard the eggs until they hatch.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 5kg

Diet: Small fish, insects, shrimp, prawn, frogs, worms, crustaseans.



CLOWN FEATHERBACK

          The Clown Featherback, clown knifefish, or spotted knifefish, Chitala ornata, is a nocturnal tropical fish with a long, knife-like body. This knifefish is native to Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. Where found in the Mekong, Chao Phraya and Meklong river basins. It has also been introduced to regions outside its native range, including Palm Beach County, Florida, United States.

          The clown knifefish is very distinct, with normally silvery gray with a long knife-like body (laterally compressed) and a long anal fin that gives these fish their common name. Mature fish normally have five to ten (or even more) black spots ringed with white that usually decrease in size as the fish grows. Juveniles lack the spots, but are overall striped. Their long anal fins are used to make graceful forward and backward movements.The clown knifefish grows to a fairly large size, up to 1 m (3.3 Ft) and 5 kg (11 Lb) in the wild. It has two nasal tentacles above its large, toothed mouth. In the center of the body is a flaglike dorsal fin and has no ventral fins. Most clown knifefish are afflicted with cloudy eye color when they age.

          They are nocturnal and usually cruise during the twilight hours. They normally hunt live prey and will try any fish that fits into their mouths. Young clown knifefish usually school near water logs and plants for security, whereas more mature specimens usually become territorial and eventually become loners. These fish can also breath air to survive in stagnant waters and little oxygen. The clown knifefish prefers water around neutral pH and temperature ranging from 75 to 85 °F (24 to 29 °C). These fish usually are found in lakes, swamps, and river backwaters.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 2,5kg

Diet: Small fish, insects, shrimp, prawn, worms.

 

 

BLANC´S STRIPED FEATHERBACK

          The Indochina Striped Featherback or Blanc’s Striped Featherback is carnivorous member of the Notopteridae - Featherbacks or knifefishes family of fishes in the order of Osteoglossiformes (bony tongues).
          The Featherback is distributed in the mainstream of the Mekong in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia and the lower course of some adjoining tributaries.
          The is distinguishable by the presence of numerous small black spots (in the anterior half of the body), merging posteriorly into irregular oblique bands extending on the anal and caudal fins and differs from all other Featherback species in having a large round black spot at base of pectoral fin.
          Some specimens display a translucent rainbow colouration towards the anal surface of the fish.
          The ventrally compressed body shape of the Striped Featherback allows the fish to swim into tight gaps in structure where it waits in ambush for unsuspecting prey.
The Featherback favours aquatic environments with fast flowing waters, deep pools or rapids and prefers habitats associated with rocky or gravelly substrate.
The fish is a freshwater nocturnal predatory hunter which is active during twilight and night and feeds on a variety of fishes, crustaceans and insects, and grows to a fairly large size, up to 120cm and 8 kg.  
          The Featherback has been bred for several years in Thailand and is present in various natural reservoirs and dams in addition to several fishing lakes and ponds throughout Thailand.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 2kg

Diet: Small fish, insects, shrimp, prawn, worms, crustanceans.

 

THE PACU´S

         Pacu, along with their piranha cousins, are a characin fish, meaning a kind of tetra, belonging to the Characiformes order. The ongoing classification of these fish is difficult and often contentious, with ichthyologists basing ranks according to characteristics that may overlap irregularly (see Cladistics). DNA research sometimes confounds rather than clarifies species ranking. Ultimately, classifications can be rather arbitrary. Pacu, along with piranha, are currently further classified into the Serrasalminae subfamily. Serrasalminae means "serrated salmon family" and is a name which refers to the serrated keel running along the belly of these fish. However, dental characteristics and feeding habits further separate the two groups from each other. The common name pacu is generally applied to fish classified under the following genera

  • Colossoma
  • Metynnis
  • Mylesinus (Mylopus)
  • Mylossoma
  • Ossubtus
  • Piaractus
  • Tometes
  • Utiaritichthys

         Each of these groups contain one or more separate species. For example, the fish often found in pet stores known as the "Black Pacu" and the "Red-bellied Pacu" belong to the species Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus brachypomus, respectively. A species popular among aquaculturists is the Piaractus mesopotamicus, also known as "Paraná River Pacu

         Pacu (Portuguese pronunciation) is a common name used in the aquarium trade to refer to several common species of omnivorous South American freshwater fish that are related to the piranha. Pacu and piranha do not have similar teeth, the main difference being jaw alignment; piranha have pointed, razor-sharp teeth in a pronounced underbite, whereas pacu have squarer, straighter teeth, like a human, and a less severe underbite, or a slight overbite. Additionally, full-grown pacu are much larger than piranha, reaching up to 0.9 m (3 feet) and 25 kg (55 pounds) in the wild.

         Pacu is a term of Brazilian Indian origin. When the large fish of the Colossoma genus entered the aquarium trade in the U.S. and other countries, they were erroneously labeled pacu. In the Amazon, the term pacu is generally reserved to smaller and medium-sized fish in the Metynnis, Mylossoma, Mylesinus and Myleus genera. The Colossoma macropomum fish are known as tambaqui, whereas Piaractus brachypomus is known as pirapitinga

 

         Pacus inhabit most rivers and streams in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins of lowland Amazonia, where they form part of the highly diverse Neotropical fish fauna. They have also recently been found in the riverine systems of Papua New Guinea, where it is believed the fish has been introduced to aid the local fishing industry. In August 2013 a Pacu was discovered in Scandinavian waters, a fisherman pulled a 21 cm (8.27 inch) specimen from Oresund off Sweden's south coast. An angler fishing on the river Seine in Paris, France caught a Pacu on 30 August 2013

 

BLACK PACU

Fish population in our lake: up to 10kg

Diet: Fruit, nuts, insects, shrimp, maize, bread.

 

TAMPAQUI

Fish population in our lake: up to 5kg

Diet: Fruit, nuts, insects, shrimp, maize, bread.

 

BLACK-FINNED PACU

Fish population in our lake: up to 4kg

Diet: Fruit, nuts, insects, shrimp, maize, bread.

 

RED-BELLIED PACU

Fish population in our lake: up to 3kg

Diet: Fruit, nuts, insects, shrimp, maize, bread.

 

GIAND GOURAMI

The Giant Gourami, Osphronemus goramy, is a species of gourami believed to be originally native to Southeast Asia, with its occurrence in other locations due to introductions. This species is commercially important as a food fish and is also farmed. It can also be found in the aquarium trade. The species has also been used for weed control, as it can be a voracious herbivore.

It lives in fresh or brackish water, particularly slow-moving areas such as swamps, lakes, and large rivers. It is capable of breathing moist air, so can survive out of water for long periods. It is much larger than most gouramis, growing to a maximum length of 70 cm (28 in), though most are only around 45 cm (18 in). In colour, it is a pale to golden yellow, with silvery, pale blue stripes running vertically along its body. Females can be identified by their thicker lips. Giant gouramis build nests using weeds and twigs.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 6kg

Diet: Fruit, water plats, vegetables, insects, nuts, shrimp, maize, bread.

 

 

AROWANNA

 

         The arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) sometimes spelled arawana, is a freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, commonly kept in aquaria. The generic name Osteoglossum means "bone-tongued" and the specific name bicirrhosum means "two barbels" (from the Greek language)

         This South American species is found in the Amazon Basin and in the Rupununi and Oyapock Rivers, as well as in still waters in the Guianas.This fish has relatively large scales, a long body, and a tapered tail, with the dorsal and anal fins extending all the way to the small caudal fin, with which they are nearly fused. It can grow to a maximum size of 90 cm (35 in). Unlike the black arowana, the arowana has the same coloring throughout its lifespan. The species is also called 'monkey fish' because of its ability to jump out of the water and capture its prey. It usually swims near the water surface waiting for potential prey. Although specimens have been found with the remains of birds, bats, and snakes in their stomachs, its main diet consists of crustaceans, insects, smaller fishes, and other animals that float on the water surface, for which its drawbridge-like mouth is exclusively adapted for feeding.Arowanas are sometimes called 'dragon fish' by aquarists because their shiny, armor-like scales and double barbels are reminiscent of descriptions of dragons in Asian folklore.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 2kg

Diet: Fish, insects, shrimp, prowns, frogs.

 

CHINESE SEERFISH

          The Chinese Seerfish (Elopichthys bambusa) species is widely spread in east Asia, with the Amur River being the northern border and the Lam River (Viet Nam) being the southern border of distribution range (Berg 1964, Bogutskaya and Naseka. It is a relatively warm water species, so it avoids mountain streams and is completely absent in the upper Amur River basin. It was introduced in Uzbekistan also.

          The species matures at the age of six years, at which time its length can exceed 60 cm and and grows to a fairly large size, up to 3m and 200 kg. It spawns in streams from the beginning of June to mid-August. The fish's main spawning grounds are in the mid-Amur River, Songhua and Ussuri. Fry and young fish feed in the lower Amur. After spawning, adult fish travel to the slow moving, off-channel floodplains, but winter in the main branches of these rivers. Its main food is small, pelagic fish. 

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 3kg

Diet: Fish, waterfowl, frogs.

 

 

GIANT FRESHWATER STINGRAY

         The giant freshwater stingray (Himantura polylepis, also widely known by the junior synonym H. chaophraya) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae. It is found in large rivers and estuaries in Indochina and Borneo, though historically it may have been more widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia. The giant freshwater stingray reaches at least 2 m (6.2 ft) in width and 5.0 m (16.4 ft) in length, and can likely grow larger. With reports from the Mekong and Chao Phraya Rivers of individuals weighing 500–600 kg (1,100–1,300 lb), it ranks among the largest freshwater fishes in the world.

         Bottom-dwelling in nature, the giant freshwater stingray inhabits sandy or muddy areas and preys on small fishes and invertebrates. Females give live birth to litters of one to four pups, which are sustained to term by maternally produced histotroph ("uterine milk"). This species faces heavy fishing pressure for meat, recreation, and aquarium display, as well as extensive habitat degradation and fragmentation. These forces have resulted in substantial population declines in at least central Thailand and Cambodia. As a result, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed the giant freshwater stingray as Endangered.

         In Indochina, it occurs in the Mekong River to potentially as far upstream as Chiang Khong in Thailand, as well as in the Chao Phraya, Nan, Mae Klong, Bang Pakong, Prachin Buri and Tapi Rivers. In Borneo, this species is found in the Mahakam River in Kalimantan and the Kinabatangan and Buket Rivers in Sabah. It is reportedly common in the Kinabatangan River but infrequently caught.

         Disjunct populations of the giant freshwater stingray in separate river drainages are probably isolated from one another; though the species occurs in brackish environments, there is no evidence that it crosses marine waters. This is a bottom-dwelling species that favors a sandy or muddy habitat. Unexpectedly, it can sometimes be found near heavily populated urban areas.

         The giant freshwater stingray is not aggressive, but it merits caution as its sting is sheathed in toxic mucus and is capable of piercing bone. Across its range, this species is caught incidentally by artisanal fishers using longlines, and to a lesser extent gillnets and fish traps. It is reputedly difficult and time-consuming to catch, a hooked ray may bury itself under large quantities of mud, becoming almost impossible to lift, or drag boats over substantial distances or underwater. The meat and perhaps the cartilage are used; large specimens are cut into kilogram pieces for sale. Adults that are not used for food are often killed or maimed by fishers regardless. In the Mae Klong and Bang Pakong Rivers, the giant freshwater stingray is also increasingly targeted by sport fishers and for display in public aquariums. These trends pose conservation concerns, the former because catch and release is not universally practiced and the post-release survival rate is unknown, the latter because this species does not survive well in captivity.

 

Fish population in our lake: up to 1,3m diameter

Diet: Fish, crustanceans, molluscs, worms.

 

 

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